Metacognition, Strategies, Achievement, and Demographics: Relationships Across Countries
Year: 2016 Vol: 16 Number: 5
Learning strategies, such as memorization and elaboration strategies, have received both support and repudiation. The 2009 international PISA reading, science, and mathematics achievement test and survey of 15 year-olds in 65 countries was used. The findings indicated that self-reported use of learning strategies, which involve compensatory approaches like memorization, across a global sample was not strongly associated with higher achievement. However, metacognitive strategies which involve an awareness of thinking, as measured by the appropriate use of strategies within a context, were related to greater achievement. Although there were differences across gender and student SES, metacognitive strategies remained a significant predictor of achievement when controlling for SES and gender, and were on par with SES in predicting achievement. This study provides insight that may be particularly beneficial for males and lower SES students who underachieve in reading.